Administration creates the techniques by which the purpose of an institution is fulfilled at minimum cost with minimum effort. It is mainly concerned with the directive function through which an administrator unifies and channelizes the efforts of all personnel engaged in an enterprise, and guides their activities in the right direction. The administrator directs the efforts and energies of the personnel in right channels to attain the objectives for which the enterprise is established. Emphasizing upon the arrangement of personnel and the proper allocation of their works as the main function of organization, John Gaus maintains that ‘organization is the arrangement of personnel for facilitating the accomplishment of some agreed purpose through the allocation of functions and responsibilities. It is the relating of efforts and capacities of individuals and groups engaged upon a common task in such a way as to secure the desired objective with the best satisfaction to those for whom the task. is done and those engaged in the enterprise.”10 Administration, on the other hand, is that function which virtually executes or carries out the objective for which a library or an enterprise is organized.
There is, however, no guarantee that a well-organized enterprise with modern equipment and organized personnel shall always be able to deliver the desired goods without an able administrator or commander. The Kimballs have thus rightly compared this state of an organized plant with “a highly organized army without marching orders”, whose success entirely depends upon the efficiency and skill of the commander. The success of a well-organized library therefore depends upon an efficient administration which issues orders to get the works done. “Administration or direction includes all functions and activities that are concerned with the actual work of executing or carrying out the objectives for which the enterprise has been financed and organized. Those responsible for the management and organization of an enterprise may have provided excellent equipment and well-organized personnel but the plant may still b3 unproductive. ln this stage it is likely a highly organized army without marching orders. Administration embraces such functions as issuing orders concerning the work to be done, seeing that the personnel is fitted for the work and trained to operate efficiently, and caring in general for the everyday routine necessary to ensure that men, materials, and equipment are functioning properly toward the desired end.11
From the afore stated analysis, the following distinctions between the two can be gleaned :
1. Organization provides the structure of authority, responsibility, and various functions of a library or institution, while administration applies the techniques, methods, devices, policies ways and means to achieve
2. Organization is an element, function, or instrument of administration. It is the machinery of administration. the channel through which the measures and policies of administration are put into effect. Administration, on the other hand, is concerned with the directive function exercised by the administrator of a library or an institution.12
3. Organization comes first and administration follows it. There can be no effective administration unless there is a sound organization.
4. Organization is subordinated to administration.
5. Administration starts the moment an organization is formulated and established. Firstly, a library is planned, founded, and organized. And the administration of the library begins when the day-to-day functioning of the library is undertaken, i.e. administration involves the application of practical techniques for getting the works done in various departments of the library.
6. Organization lays down the theoretical aspects of arrangement to ensure an efficient and sound establishment, whereas administration applies various principles and practical methods for achieving the objectives of the institution.
Management vs. Administration
The terms ‘management’ and ‘administration’ are so closely related to one another that some authors do not separate these terms, and instead, address management as ‘operative management’ and administration as ‘administrative management.’ Some authors identify two distinct functions of an enterprise to be performed, viz. (i) the administrative or policy-deter-mining function, and (ii) the managerial, or, executive, or ‘doing’ function. Spriegel and Davies’ 13 define administration as the one which ‘predetermines the specific goals and lays down the broad areas within which the goals are to be achieved. ‘It is a determinative function within an enterprise and is the primary responsibility of top management’, whereas ‘management directs the active operations within the enterprise and combines the work of the employees with the available capital, equipment and materials to produce an acceptable product.’
Oliver Sheldon, a great English authority, defines management as ‘the function concerned in the execution of policy within the limits set up by administration and the employment of the organization for the particular objects before it’, whilst administration is the function concerned in the determination of the corporate policy.14 E. F. L. Brech, one of Britain’s leading authorities on management, defines management as ‘a social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economical planning and regulation of the operations of an enterprise to fulfil a given purpose or task involving : (a) judgment and decision in determining plans, and the development of data procedures to assist control of performance and progress against plans, and (b) the guidance, integration, motivation and supervision of the personnel composing the enterprise, and carrying out its operation.15 Management, according to him, is neither a science nor an art. It is the overall process of executive jurisdiction for planning, motivation and control’, while organization involves : (a) ‘the responsibilities by means of which the activities of the enterprise are dispersed among the managerial, supervisory and specialist positions personnel employed in its service ; and (b) the formal interrelations established among the positions personnel by virtue of such respective responsibilities’. And administration is ‘that part of the management process concerned with the institution and carrying out of the procedures by which the program is laid down and communicated, and the progress of activities are regulated and checked against targets and plans.16
Definitions and analysis of management and administration provided by various authorities thus appear to be contradictory in many respects. Brech holds that management is a ‘generic term’ while ‘administration is considered only a part of it. Contrary to this thesis, Sheldon,’17 Spriegel and Davies maintain that ‘management is a part of administration, and go on interpreting that ‘that phase of a business enterprise which concerns itself with the overall determination of the major policies and objectives is administration’, 18 whereas ‘the executive function which concerns itself with the carrying out of the administrative policies laid down by administration is management’19. It must, however, be stated that management is a vital part of administration, for, it is ‘the art and science of organizing and directing human effort’ applied to control and utilize human labour and materials for the benefit of man and the society.
It is a system popularized by Taylor, Gantt and others in the early 20th century which aimed at developing ( i ) ways of increasing productivity by making work easier to perform and (iii methods for motivating the workers to take advantage of these labour-saving devices and techniques. A famous scientific manager. Henry L. Gantt, who worked with Taylor in 1 887 and who developed ‘task-and-bonus’ system, cautioned as early as 1911 that ‘Scientific Management should not be allowed to mislead anybody’. It simply means : ‘study your problem according to scientific methods, eliminating guess, setting each man a proper task, and allowing suitable rewards for the accomplishment of these tasks. This done, increased efficiency is bound to follow’10. This, in other words, means that if a manager studies his institutional problems scientifically avoiding guess-work or conjectures, and assigns proper work to proper man and allows rewards for his achievement, this must result in increased efficiency, and this is scientific management. Scientific management is thus the “application of principles and methodology of modern science to problems of administration”” or, it may simply mean the method or process of controlling the affairs of an enterprise administered scientifically.
Taylor as father
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915), who rose from a laborer to a chief engineer, and later a manager of steal works in Philadelphia is generally regarded as the father of scientific management. He believed that the casual, rule-of-thumb approach to management prevalent in his days should be replaced by scientific analysis. He developed a number of management principles which are still operative. Among his contributions was the scientific development of time study and standards. He propounded several basic principles of management ;22
1. to gather all traditional knowledge and classify, tabulate, and reduce it to rules, laws, and formulas to help workers in their daily work.
2. to develop a science for each element of man’s work to replace the rule-of-thumb method.
3. to scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker.
4. to co-operate with workers to ensure that work is done according to developed scientific principles.
5. to make an almost equal division of work and responsibility between workers and managers, i.e. managers are to be given work for which they are best fitted, as are employees.